Clonazepam dosage forms slideshare powerpoint

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Are you sure you want to Yes No. For other uses, see Xanax disambiguation. Alprazolam is covered under U. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. Possible side effects include:. Inhaled dosage forms Cont. Not all withdrawal effects are evidence of true dependence or withdrawal.

We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime. Show related SlideShares at end. Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Treatment is needed when it is disproportionate to the situation and excessive. They have largely replaced barbiturates in the treatment of anxiety, because benzodiazepines are safer and more effective.

These binding site sometimes called as benzodiazepine receptors i. Benzodiazepines increase the frequency of channel openings produced by GABA influx of chloride ion cause hyperpolarization. Benzodiazepines BZDs Pharmacological action: At low doses, the benzodiazepines are anxiolytic. All of the benzodiazepines used to treat anxiety have some sedative properties, and some can produce hypnosis artificially produced sleep at higher doses.

Several of the benzodiazepines have anticonvulsant activity and some are used to treat epilepsy status epilepticus and other seizure disorders. Baclofen is a muscle relaxant that is believed to affect GABA receptors at the level of the spinal cord. Benzodiazepines BZDs Therapeutic uses: Benzodiazepines are effective for the treatment of the anxiety symptoms secondary to panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder GAD , social anxiety disorder, performance anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and the extreme anxiety sometimes encountered with specific phobias such as fear of flying.

Diazepam is useful in the treatment of skeletal muscle spasms, such as occur in muscle strain, and in treating spasticity from degenerative disorders, such as multiple sclerosis and cerebral palsy. The shorter-acting agents are often employed as premedication for anxiety-provoking and unpleasant procedures such as endoscopic, bronchoscopic, and certain dental procedures as well as angioplasty. As a benzodiazepine, alprazolam produces a variety of therapeutic and adverse effects by binding to the benzodiazepine receptor site on the GABA A receptor and modulating its function; GABA receptor s are the most prolific inhibitory receptor within the brain.

The GABA chemical and receptor system mediates inhibitory or calming effects of alprazolam on the nervous system. The GABA A receptor is made up of 5 subunits out of a possible 19, and GABA A receptors made up of different combinations of subunits have different properties, different locations within the brain, and, importantly, different activities with regard to benzodiazepines. Alprazolam and other triazolobenzodiazepines like triazolam that have a triazol ring attached to their structure appear to have antidepressant properties, since the structure resembles that of tricyclic antidepressants , which also have rings.

The therapeutic properties of alprazolam are similar to other benzodiazepines and include anxiolytic , anticonvulsant , muscle relaxant , hypnotic [76] and amnesic ; however, it is used mainly as an anxiolytic. Administration of alprazolam, as compared to lorazepam , has been demonstrated to elicit a statistically significant increase in extracellular dopamine D1 and D2 concentrations in the striatum. The concentration of alprazolam peaks after one to two hours.

Two major metabolites are produced: The metabolites, as well as some unmetabolized alprazolam, are filtered out by the kidneys and are excreted in the urine. Alprazolam regular release and orally disintegrating tablets are available as 0. Alprazolam oral solutions are available as 0. Inactive ingredients in alprazolam tablets and solutions include microcrystalline cellulose , corn starch , docusate sodium , povidone , sodium starch glycollate, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate , colloidal silicon dioxide , and sodium benzoate.

In addition, the 0. Alprazolam is covered under U. Patent 3,, , which was filed on 29 October , granted on 19 October , and expired in September There is a risk of misuse and dependence in both patients and non-medical users of alprazolam; alprazolam's high affinity binding, high potency, and rapid onset increase its abuse potential. The physical dependence and withdrawal syndrome of alprazolam also add to its addictive nature.

In the small subgroup of individuals who escalate their doses there is usually a history of alcohol or other substance use disorders. Alprazolam is one of the most commonly prescribed and misused benzodiazepines in the United States. Men and women are equally likely to use benzodiazepines recreationally. The report found that alprazolam is the most common benzodiazepine for recreational use, followed by clonazepam , lorazepam , and diazepam.

Regarding the significant increases detected, it is worthwhile to consider that the number of pharmaceuticals dispensed for legitimate therapeutic uses may be increasing over time, and DAWN estimates are not adjusted to take such increases into account. Alprazolam, along with other benzodiazepines, is often used with other recreational drugs. These uses include aids to relieve the panic or distress of dysphoric " bad trip " reactions to psychedelic drugs , such as LSD , and the drug-induced agitation and insomnia in the " comedown " stages of stimulant use, such as amphetamine , cocaine , and MDMA allowing sleep.

Alprazolam may also be used with other depressant drugs , such as ethanol , heroin and other opioids , in an attempt to enhance their psychological effects. Alprazolam may be used in conjunction with cannabis , with users citing a synergistic effect achieved after consuming the combination. The poly-drug use of powerful depressant drugs poses the highest level of health concerns due to a significant increase in the likelihood of experiencing an overdose , which may cause fatal respiratory depression.

A study claimed that diazepam has a higher misuse potential relative to other benzodiazepines, and that some data suggests that alprazolam and lorazepam resemble diazepam in this respect. Anecdotally injection of alprazolam has been reported, causing dangerous damage to blood vessels, closure of blood vessels embolization and decay of muscle tissue rhabdomyolysis. Slang terms for alprazolam vary from place to place.

Some of the more common terms are shortened versions of the trade name "Xanax", such as Xannies or Xanies and the phonetic equivalent of Zannies; [93] [94] references to their drug classes, such as benzos or downers; or remark upon their shape or color most commonly a straight, perforated tablet or an oval-shaped pill: Alprazolam is available in English-speaking countries under the following brand names: As of December , in anticipation of the rescheduling of alprazolam to Schedule 8 in Australia—Pfizer Australia announced they would be discontinuing the Xanax brand in Australia as it is no longer commercially viable.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Xanax disambiguation. D Evidence of risk. Benzodiazepine dependence and Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome. Drugs Across the Spectrum. Retrieved 14 September Anxiety or tension associated with the stress of everyday life usually does not require treatment with an anxiolytic Demonstrations of the effectiveness of XANAX by systematic clinical study are limited to 4 months duration for anxiety disorder and 4 to 10 weeks duration for panic disorder; however, patients with panic disorder have been treated on an open basis without any apparent loss of benefit.

The physician should periodically reassess the usefulness of the drug for the individual patient. The Most Popular Prescription Drugs". Retrieved 16 June A Review of the Literature". Comprehensive Review of Psychiatry. Principles and Practice of Psychopharmacotherapy 5th ed. Retrieved 22 January The primary care companion for CNS disorders.

A Dose of Sanity: Mind, Medicine, and Misdiagnosis. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved 13 February Archived from the original on 15 May Retrieved 3 April Archived from the original on 12 March Retrieved 1 October Given the millions of prescriptions written for benzodiazepines about million in , relatively few individuals increase their dose on their own initiative or engage in drug-seeking behavior.

World Journal of Biological Psychiatry. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. The American Journal of Psychiatry. Archived from the original on 9 August Retrieved 2 August Archived from the original on 20 July Retrieved 3 August Archived from the original on 18 December Retrieved 7 December Archived from the original on 13 September Prediction of Alprazolam Transfer into Milk". British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. Fear of Teratogenic Risk and Impact of Counselling". Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience.

Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. American Journal of Psychiatry. Integration of Theoretical and Clinical Perspectives". The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. Retrieved 9 April Results for Two Benzodiazepines". Canadian Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology. Archived from the original on 19 August Results from a Multicenter Trial. Patient Acceptance, Side Effects, and Safety".

Archives of General Psychiatry. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. Seishin Shinkeigaku Zasshi in Japanese. Archived from the original PDF on 9 July John's Wort Hypericum perforatum: A Review of the Clinical Evidence". International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. John's Wort Drug Interactions". European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. An Updated Systematic Review". Neuroscientific Basis and Practical Applications. How They Work and How to Withdraw".

Retrieved 31 October

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