There are no other conflicts of interest. That may not be the case. I have been on Cloazepam for many years and, at 78 years of age, do not have any signs yet of the mind problems discussed. This is very troubling. We invite you to share your thoughts with others, but remember that our comment section is a public forum. It requires patience and persistence. Int Clin Psychopharmacol
The brain also triggers the release of various hormones in the body like the adrenaline, noradrenalin, glucocorticoids etc. This gives us a high. We feel like we can conquer the world, become reckless and over confident, talk louder, become bullies, just to impress a possible assailant. This high lasts until the autonomic Nervous System gets activated. This part of our nervous system controls all the involuntary actions of our body.
This system has two subdivisions. The Sympathetic Nervous System and the Para-sympathetic Nervous System , which are like the fire alarm and the calming down mechanism of the body respectively. When the sympathetic Nervous System is activated then for obvious reasons the Para-sympathetic Nervous System is inhibited simultaneously. When the brain considers the danger past after 4 to 6 hours it deactivates the Sympathetic Nervous System, and activates the Para-sympathetic Nervous System, the calming down mechanism of the body.
This is what gets us the low, which lasts until we consume the allergen again, and of we go on the rollercoaster. Trying to get to sleep in this scenario is literally impossible. Many people believe that translation is an easy things but all you have to do is to change words from the source text into the equivalent words.
There is a great number of useful Translation available yet every translator has their own reliable methods and techniques, built on the expertise and time. As languages are subject to a constant process of change and refinement, translation work should be put in the hands of experienced technical translators. The translators entrusted with your translations can be providing evidence of their well-founded technical knowledge of the particular specialist area as well as being perfectly acquainted with both the original and the target languages.
It seems to only be focused on the elderly. I have been on lorazepam for several years for a severe anxiety disorder. I just wanted to submit a comment while I still remember how to use the computer. Hello Peter, try to get some non pharmacological treatment. I am currently taking an online course on Alzheimer and I am amaze by all the information there is , and I never bother to read.
It is making me more selfconcious. Hope you get well. I also believe that mesothelioma cancer is a extraordinary form of cancer that is generally found in these previously subjected to asbestos. Thanks for revealing your ideas. Any help would be greatly appreciated! Mahmoud Heidarian Vancouver BC. Hi Mahmoud, we use WordPress to manage our blog, which allows the option to manually code and to simply type in your content without dealing with coding. This is very troubling. Perhaps we can share this?
In any case, thanks for a different perspective. Medical Journal or the news articles is what kind of doses is the study talking about. In particular, what doses of xanex are high or low in their measure of usage. Going through this post reminds me of my previous roommate! He continually kept talking about this. Many thanks for sharing! During that year and for a year after quitting, I repeatedly told my girlfriend I felt like an early-stage dementia patient.
Benzos are fine for occasional use but behave very differently with long-term use. Brain damage from benzos is visible on brain scans in long-term users see link below. This is nothing new. I am 83 and have had many relations who took diazepams over several years as sleeping medication. No one had Alzhimers. My night cap has been a shot of Scotch. I always wondered if this had anything to do with having this horrible disease, particularly at such a young age.
I have been taking large amounts of Xanax for decades. When I was prescribed this medication, I asked the doctor the risk factors. He said that they were minimal. The only thing that I can think of that might be a saving grace is that I have an extremely active mind, and have kept learning new things, was involved in a mentally demanding job, and have always looked for ways to expand my knowledge base and try new things.
I watched my father die horribly of Lewy Body Dementia last year…horribly. I feel the same way Helpless von Benzos. But we have to sleep. Hi, I agree with you. I had a rough, rough childhood, and both my late parents had severe anxiety, but were never medicated, unless you count alcohol. I have been taking it steadily since then, without increasing the dosage. However, I know it would be a terror to quit. The Klonopin relieved that when I resumed. Herbal tea and other remedies never touched the anxiety I felt.
I commiserate with you, and all the rest of us with GAD or something like it. We get relief and then get slammed. AKA an unscrupulous doctor giving out 2mg xannie bars to 16 year olds and shoving them full of more and more. Also take a second to look at the sample population. Also, doctors in certain parts of the world are more focused on different diseases and some doctors are very reluctant to diagnose anything, these doctors could be some of them.
Who paid for this study? I would guarantee it was paid for by someone in big marijuana or in big anti-psychotics. Where do I come from: How many other people say that. My life would have continued to be hell with anxiety, GAD, and social phobia. I used to fear checkout counters at the store because of interaction with another person. Thanks for your post.
I wish my own doctor could be as rational about the matter as you. I am 65 years old. Before that I took Xanax at bedtime for about 6 mos. How do I get off the medications safely to avoid withdrawal symptoms? Barbara, You can make an account at benzobuddies. Also working with your doctor, but many are not very knowledgable about safe, slow benzo tapering or withdrawal. I had my first panic attact at he age 20, i felt out of control; i was told to see a shrink, for 2 yrs i was put on librium, that was I dont no what to do.
Tranquiliser drugs are so potent and he body goes into tolerance after a while. As I mentioned to Barbara, you can check out benzobuddies. Working closely with your doctor during your taper is important, as well. Good luck, you can recover. Whether or not this is a causal link I would not recommend these drugs for anyone ever! Catherine Pittman on the Anxiety Summit in June and she shared a survey she did with the Benzobuddies.
You can read more here and get access to data from her survey, plus read comments from other folks who have battled with this horrible drug http: I am one of the few that react terribly badly to this type of drug so it was stopped abruptly. My withdrawal was horrendous and lengthy. However, a CT study in found no evidence of brain shrinkage in prescribed benzodiazepine users.
In , in a 4- to 6-year follow-up study of 30 inpatient benzodiazepine abusers, Neuropsychological function was found to be permanently affected in some chronic high-dose abusers of benzodiazepines. Brain damage similar to alcoholic brain damage was observed. The CT scan abnormalities showed dilatation of the ventricular system. However, unlike alcoholics, sedative hypnotic abusers showed no evidence of widened cortical sulci.
The study concluded that, when cerebral disorder is diagnosed in sedative hypnotic benzodiazepine abusers, it is often permanent. A CT study in investigated brain damage in benzodiazepine users and found no overall differences to a healthy control group. A study in found that long-term benzodiazepine therapy does not result in brain abnormalities. Withdrawal from high-dose abuse of nitrazepam anecdotally was alleged in to have caused severe shock of the whole brain with diffuse slow activity on EEG in one patient after 25 years of abuse.
After withdrawal, abnormalities in hypofrontal brain wave patterns persisted beyond the withdrawal syndrome, which suggested to the authors that organic brain damage occurred from chronic high-dose abuse of nitrazepam. Professor Heather Ashton, a leading expert on benzodiazepines from Newcastle University Institute of Neuroscience, has stated that there is no structural damage from benzodiazepines, and advocates for further research into long-lasting or possibly permanent symptoms of long-term use of benzodiazepines as of Newer and more detailed brain scanning technologies such as PET scans and MRI scans had as of to her knowledge never been used to investigate the question of whether benzodiazepines cause functional or structural brain damage.
In studies have found an association between the use of benzodiazepines and an increased risk of dementia but the exact nature of the relationship is still a matter of debate. Benzodiazepines when introduced in were widely believed to be safe drugs but as the decades went by increased awareness of adverse effects connected to their long-term use became known. There was initially widespread public approval but this was followed by widespread public disapproval, and recommendations for more restrictive medical guidelines followed.
A review in of the literature on use of benzodiazepine and nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics concluded that more research is needed to evaluate the long-term effects of hypnotic drugs. In , the Department of Health recommended that individuals on long-term benzodiazepines be monitored at least every 3 months and also recommended against long-term substitution therapy in benzodiazepine drug misusers due to a lack of evidence base for effectiveness and due to the risks of long-term use.
Withdrawal effects and dependence are almost identical. A report in by the Royal College of Psychiatrists in Great Britain reported that any benefits of long-term use of benzodiazepines are likely to be far outweighed by the risks of long-term use. The socioeconomic costs of the continued widespread prescribing of benzodiazepines is high.
In , the Medical Research Council United Kingdom recommended that research be conducted into the effects of long-term use of benzodiazepines  A British Government parliamentary inquiry recommended that research into the long-term effects of benzodiazepines must be carried out. In , the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency 's Committee on the Safety of Medicines issued guidance restricting the use of benzodiazepines to short-term use and updated and strengthened these warnings in When asked by Phil Woolas in whether the Department of Health had any plans to conduct research into the long-term effects of benzodiazepines, the Department replied, saying they have no plans to do so, as benzodiazepines are already restricted to short-term use and monitored by regulatory bodies.
John Hutton stated in response that the Department of Health take the problems of benzodiazepines extremely seriously and are not sweeping the issue under the carpet. Additionally the APPGITA complaint alleged that there is a "virtual prohibition" on the collection of statistical information on benzodiazepines across government departments, whereas with other controlled drugs there are enormous volumes of statistical data. The complaint alleged that the discrimination is deliberate, large scale and that government departments are aware of what they are doing.
The Medical Research Council UK held a closed meeting among top UK medical doctors and representatives from the pharmaceutical industry between the dates of 30 October and 3 April The meeting was classified under the Public Records Act until but became available in as a result of the Freedom of Information Act. The meeting was called due to concerns that 10—, people could be dependent; meeting chairman Professor Malcolm Lader later revised this estimate to include approximately half a million members of the British public suspected of being dependent on therapeutic dose levels of benzodiazepines, with about half of those on long-term benzodiazepines.
It was reported that benzodiazepines may be the third- or fourth-largest drug problem in the UK the largest being alcohol and tobacco. The Chairman of the meeting followed up after the meeting with additional information, which was forwarded to the Medical Research Council neuroscience board, raising concerns regarding tests that showed definite cortical atrophy in 2 of 14 individuals tested and borderline abnormality in five others.
He felt that, due to the methodology used in assessing the scans, the abnormalities were likely an underestimate, and more refined techniques would be more accurate. Also discussed were findings that tolerance to benzodiazepines can be demonstrated by injecting diazepam into long-term users; in normal subjects, increases in growth hormone occurs, whereas in benzodiazepine-tolerant individuals this effect is blunted.
Also raised were findings in animal studies that showed the development of tolerance in the form of a 15 percent reduction in binding capacity of benzodiazepines after seven days administration of high doses of the partial agonist benzodiazepine drug flurazepam and a 50 percent reduction in binding capacity after 30 days of a low dose of diazepam. The Chairman was concerned that papers soon to be published would "stir the whole matter up" and wanted to be able to say that the Medical Research Council "had matters under consideration if questions were asked in parliament".
The Chairman felt that it "was very important, politically that the MRC should be 'one step ahead'" and recommended epidemiological studies be funded and carried out by Roche Pharmaceuticals and MRC sponsored research conducted into the biochemical effects of long-term use of benzodiazepines. The meeting aimed to identify issues that were likely to arise, alert the Department of Health to the scale of the problem and identify the pharmacology and nature of benzodiazepine dependence and the volume of benzodiazepines being prescribed.
Among the psychological effects of long-term use of benzodiazepines discussed was a reduced ability to cope with stress. The Chairman stated that the "withdrawal symptoms from valium were much worse than many other drugs including, e. It was stated that the likelihood of withdrawing from benzodiazepines was "reduced enormously" if benzodiazepines were prescribed for longer than four months.
It was concluded that benzodiazepines are often prescribed inappropriately, for a wide range of conditions and situations. Dr Mason DHSS and Dr Moir SHHD felt that, due to the large numbers of people using benzodiazepines for long periods of time, it was important to determine the effectiveness and toxicity of benzodiazepines before deciding what regulatory action to take.
Controversy resulted in when the previously secret files came to light over the fact that the Medical Research Council was warned that benzodiazepines prescribed to millions of patients appeared to cause brain shrinkage similar to alcohol abuse in some patients and failed to carry out larger and more rigorous studies. The Independent on Sunday reported allegations that "scores" of the 1. It has been described as a "huge scandal" by Jim Dobbin , and legal experts and MPs have predicted a class action lawsuit.
A solicitor said she was aware of the past failed litigation against the drug companies and the relevance the documents had to that court case and said it was strange that the documents were kept 'hidden' by the MRC. Professor Lader, who chaired the MRC meeting, declined to speculate as to why the MRC declined to support his request to set up a unit to further research benzodiazepines and why they did not set up a special safety committee to look into these concerns.
Professor Lader stated that he regrets not being more proactive on pursuing the issue, stating that he did not want to be labeled as the guy who pushed only issues with benzos. Professor Ashton also submitted proposals for grant-funded research using MRI, EEG, and cognitive testing in a randomized controlled trial to assess whether benzodiazepines cause permanent damage to the brain, but similarly to Professor Lader was turned down by the MRC.
The MRC spokesperson said they accept the conclusions of Professor Lader's research and said that they fund only research that meets required quality standards of scientific research, and stated that they were and continue to remain receptive to applications for research in this area. No explanation was reported for why the documents were sealed by the Public Records Act. Many victims have lasting physical, cognitive and psychological problems even after they have withdrawn.
We are seeking legal advice because we believe these documents are the bombshell they have been waiting for. The MRC must justify why there was no proper follow-up to Professor Lader's research, no safety committee, no study, nothing to further explore the results. We are talking about a huge scandal here. The legal director of Action Against Medical Accidents said urgent research must be carried out and said that, if the results of larger studies confirm Professor Lader's research, the government and MRC could be faced with one of the biggest group actions for damages the courts have ever seen, given the large number of people potentially affected.
People who report enduring symptoms post-withdrawal such as neurological pain, headaches, cognitive impairment, and memory loss have been left in the dark as to whether these symptoms are drug-induced damage or not due to the MRC's inaction, it was reported. Professor Lader reported that the results of his research did not surprise his research group given that it was already known that alcohol could cause permanent brain changes. Benzodiazepines have a unique history in that they were responsible for the largest-ever class-action lawsuit against drug manufacturers in the United Kingdom, in the s and early s, involving 14, patients and 1, law firms that alleged the manufacturers knew of the dependence potential but intentionally withheld this information from doctors.
At the same time, general practitioners and 50 health authorities were sued by patients to recover damages for the harmful effects of dependence and withdrawal. This led some doctors to require a signed consent form from their patients and to recommend that all patients be adequately warned of the risks of dependence and withdrawal before starting treatment with benzodiazepines. This litigation led to changes in the British law , making class-action lawsuits more difficult.
Benzodiazepines have been found to cause teratogenic malformations. Initial concerns regarding benzodiazepines in pregnancy began with alarming findings in animals but these do not necessarily cross over to humans. Conflicting findings have been found in babies exposed to benzodiazepines. An increase in pylorostenosis or alimentary tract atresia was seen. An increase in orofacial clefts was not demonstrated, however, and it was concluded that benzodiazepines are not major teratogens.
Neurodevelopmental disorders and clinical symptoms are commonly found in babies exposed to benzodiazepines in utero. Benzodiazepine-exposed babies have a low birth weight but catch up to normal babies at an early age, but smaller head circumferences found in benzo babies persists. Other adverse effects of benzodiazepines taken during pregnancy are deviating neurodevelopmental and clinical symptoms including craniofacial anomalies, delayed development of pincer grasp, deviations in muscle tone and pattern of movements.
Motor impairments in the babies are impeded for up to 1 year after birth. Gross motor development impairments take 18 months to return to normal but fine motor function impairments persist. Benzodiazepines, like many other sedative hypnotic drugs, cause apoptotic neuronal cell death. However, benzodiazepines do not cause as severe apoptosis to the developing brain as alcohol does. There was a smaller subset of benzodiazepine-exposed children who were slower to develop, but by four years of age most of this subgroup of children had normalised.
There was a small number of benzodiazepine-exposed children who had continuing developmental abnormalities at 4-year follow-up, but it was not possible to conclude whether these deficits were the result of benzodiazepines or whether social and environmental factors explained the continuing deficits. Concerns regarding whether benzodiazepines during pregnancy cause major malformations, in particular cleft palate, have been hotly debated in the literature.
A meta analysis of the data from cohort studies found no link but meta analysis of case control studies did find a significant increase in major malformations. However, the cohort studies were homogenous and the case control studies were heterogeneous, thus reducing the strength of the case control results. There have also been several reports that suggest that benzodiazepines have the potential to cause a syndrome similar to fetal alcohol syndrome , but this has been disputed by a number of studies.
As a result of conflicting findings, use of benzodiazepines during pregnancy is controversial. The best available evidence suggests that benzodiazepines are not a major cause of birth defects , i. Significant toxicity from benzodiazepines can occur in the elderly as a result of long-term use. Depletion of certain neurotransmitters and cortisol levels and alterations in immune function and biological markers can also occur. Discontinuation of benzodiazepines leads to improvement in the balance of the body and also leads to improvements in cognitive functions in the elderly benzodiazepine hypnotic users without worsening of insomnia.
A review of the evidence has found that whilst long-term use of benzodiazepines impairs memory, its association with causing dementia is not clear and requires further research. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Benzodiazepines The core structure of benzodiazepines. Cambridge Handbook of Psychology, Health and Medicine 2nd ed.
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Current Opinion in Psychiatry. Behaviour Research and Therapy. Journal of Psychiatric Research. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition. How They Work and How to Withdraw". American Journal of Psychiatry. Benzodiazepines--side effects, abuse risk and alternatives". J R Soc Med. Drug and Therapetic Bulletin. J Nerv Ment Dis. Outcome in 50 Patients".